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Vestibular and Balance Assessment in Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss: An Overview

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1.  Balance function in humans continues to markedly mature from:
  1. young adulthood to elderly
  2. adolescents to elderly
  3. preschool age to adolescents
  4. infancy to preschool age
2.  The caloric irrigation tests are able to stimulate the horizontal canals at these frequency ranges:
  1. 0.0002-0.004 Hz
  2. Hz
  3. 3-5 Hz
  4. 5-10 Hz
3.  All these statements are correct for ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials’ (oVEMPs) responses in children EXCEPT:
  1. oVEMPs responses are very much reliant on the children’s age
  2. oVEMPs are most robust objective measure to be conducted in young children
  3. Maturation of the related pathways determines the amplitude and latencies of the oVEMPs responses
  4. Literature has reported that clear oVEMPs can be detected by the age of 2
4.  The recommended modifications for testing cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) in children include those listed below, EXCEPT:
  1. Parents could assist by seating the child on their lap, and helping to rotate the child’s neck during testing
  2. Stimulating rooting reflex has been shown to facilitate contraction of SCM in newborns
  3. Moving young children in a rocking body movement might also be used in getting optimal SCM activation in infants and toddlers
  4. Patients are to lay face down, with the head rotated contralateral to the stimulated side
5.  An important consideration regarding the modifications and challenges in testing video head impulse test (vHIT) in young children is:
  1. To place the googles regardless of head size, as loose googles would not have significant effect on the recorded responses
  2. Getting the children’s attention and sustaining gaze in not mandatory and only an option for reliable recorded responses
  3. Using remote video detection, getting and sustaining the child’s gaze by being creative and accommodating to their age and needs
  4. To wait until the child is mature enough to understand the task

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