AudiologyOnline Phone: 800-753-2160
Widex Support for COVID-19 - April 2020

Gap Detection

Robert Keith, PhD

January 27, 2003

Share:

Question

What are the factors for gap detection (related to parameters of procedures, stimuli, etc.)?

Answer

Assessment for identification of temporal processing disorders was a recommendation of the ASHA consensus conference on APD and the report of the Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis of Auditory-Processing disorders in School-Aged Children (Jerger and Musiek, 2000). A test of temporal processing was designed by McCroskey in the early 1980's that evolved into the Random Gap Detection Test (Keith, 2000). At the moment that is the only clinical test of temporal processing that is available. That is, other tests with ''time'' in their titles are tests of pattern recognition (e.g. the Duration Patterns Test) or degraded speech (e.g. the Time Compressed Speech Test.) Gap detection testing can be done several ways, but the premise is to introduce two stimuli (tones, clicks, broad band noise) of some duration with a variable gap between them. The subject is to identify when the temporal gap when the two stimuli are heard as one sound or two. The threshold at which the gap is sufficiently wide to be heard as two sounds is the ''gap detection threshold.'' Research on speech perception indicates that persons should be able to hear transitions of formant frequencies of speech in the 0 to 20 millisecond range, so that the assumption is that gap detection thresholds greater than 20 milliseconds are abnormal and a temporal processing disorder may be present. The greater the gap detection threshold, e.g. up to 300 msec, the greater the probability that a person will have difficulty with speech discrimination. That kind of abnormality would represent a bottom-up auditory processing disorder. No one knows the prevalence of such problems in school aged children, but while it may be low the identification of these problems is important in order to provide appropriate recommendations for management.

The Random Gap Detection Test recording consists of a 1000 Hz calibration tone, a practice subtest for tonal stimuli and four subtests consisting of the frequencies 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz of seven-msec duration. A final subtest includes a practice test for click stimuli of 230 uSec duration followed by a subtest of clicks presented in random order. Tone and click pairs are presented with inter-stimulus intervals of 0 to 40 msec with the following specific intervals: 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 milliseconds. The inter-stimulus intervals are recorded with gaps randomly assigned using a table of random numbers. The stimulus pairs are recorded with 4.5-second intervals to allow subjects time to respond.

Fan-Gang Zeng, Ph.D. at College Park, has a unique website where you can measure your own gap detection threshold to broad band noise. Check it out at: http://www.bsos.umd.edu/hesp/zeng/gapdetection/

I hope this is helpful.

Robert W. Keith, professor of Audiology at the University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine. Background includes publications in the area of auditory processing and APD, and author of several tests of auditory processing.


Robert W. Keith, Ph.D.
Board Certified in Audiology
Professor and Director
Division of Audiology
University of Cincinnati Medical Center
P.O. Box 670528
Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0528
Phone: 513-558-4863
FAX: 513-558-5203
www.capdtest.com


Robert Keith, PhD


Related Courses

Siemens Expert Series 2014
Presented by Catherine Palmer, PhD, Harvey Dillon, PhD, Sharon Cameron, PhD, Michael Valente, PhD, Pamela Souza, PhD, H. Gustav Mueller, PhD
Recorded Webinar
Signia

Presenters

Catherine Palmer, PhDHarvey Dillon, PhDSharon Cameron, PhDMichael Valente, PhDPamela Souza, PhDH. Gustav Mueller, PhD
Course: #24905Level: Advanced5 Hours
  'I'm hoping it increases the awareness, acceptance, and usage of Real Ear Measurment'   Read Reviews
No CEUs/Hours Offered
This series of courses reviews current topics in hearing loss and amplification, including identification and remediation of Spatial Processing Disorder, managing patients with severe hearing loss, and tips and tools to help counsel patients regarding their individual needs.

View this Course for FREE.
Need CEUs? Become a AudiologyOnline member to get unlimited CEUs.

Only $99/yr

Learn More

CAPD Therapy from the Palm of Your Hand
Presented by Bunnie Schuler, CCC-SLP, TSSLD
Recorded Webinar
AudiologyOnline

Presenter

Bunnie Schuler, CCC-SLP, TSSLD
Course: #26199Level: Introductory1 Hour
  'I appreciated the specific examples of apps that can be used, and the way they can be used to target specific deficits'   Read Reviews
This workshop will guide attendees through an exploration of the use of mobile technology and software applications (“apps”) as tools for facilitating therapy for individuals with auditory processing and related disorders. The presentation’s focus will be to demonstrate how to take advantage of therapeutic materials available on hand-held devices that extend the evidence-based principles of treatment to address auditory processing deficits as well as other related speech-language impairments.

View this Course for FREE.
Need CEUs? Become a AudiologyOnline member to get unlimited CEUs.

Only $99/yr

Learn More

Maximizing Outcomes for Children with Auditory Disorders
Presented by Carol Flexer, PhD, CCC-A, LSLS Cert. AVT, Jane Madell, PhD, CCC-A/SLP, LSLS Cert. AVT, Gail Whitelaw, PhD
Recorded Webinar
AudiologyOnline

Presenters

Carol Flexer, PhD, CCC-A, LSLS Cert. AVTJane Madell, PhD, CCC-A/SLP, LSLS Cert. AVTGail Whitelaw, PhD
Course: #26492Level: Intermediate3 Hours
  'Excellent presentations by all! Very engaging and informative'   Read Reviews
This 3-hour online CE course is presented by leading experts in pediatric audiology to provide a practical, evidence-based approach to the effective management of auditory disorders in children. Topics discussed will include: assessing what children hear in classrooms and what to do about it; management of auditory processing disorders in children; and using an auditory brain development approach to facilitate listening, language and literacy.

View this Course for FREE.
Need CEUs? Become a AudiologyOnline member to get unlimited CEUs.

Only $99/yr

Learn More

AudiologyOnline Fall Focus: Pediatrics
Presented by Erin Schafer, PhD, Lisa Hilbert, AuD, Susan Eichert, AuD, Jessica Messersmith, PhD, Lindsey E. Jorgensen, AuD, PhD
Recorded Webinar
AudiologyOnline

Presenters

Erin Schafer, PhDLisa Hilbert, AuDSusan Eichert, AuDJessica Messersmith, PhDLindsey E. Jorgensen, AuD, PhD
Course: #26907Level: Intermediate3.5 Hours
  'Lots of great case studies and real life examples'   Read Reviews
This modular course covers an array of clinical topics in pediatric audiology including assessment and management of children with autism spectrum disorder, treatment of auditory processing disorder, and hearing technology case studies. Each module incorporates practical guidance from the evidence as well as from the presenters’ clinical experience.

View this Course for FREE.
Need CEUs? Become a AudiologyOnline member to get unlimited CEUs.

Only $99/yr

Learn More

Treatment from the APD Trenches
Presented by Lisa Hilbert, AuD, Susan Eichert, AuD
Recorded Webinar
AudiologyOnline

Presenters

Lisa Hilbert, AuDSusan Eichert, AuD
Course: #26856Level: Intermediate1 Hour
  'I feel that the information for audiologists regarding treatment of APD is lacking'   Read Reviews
This presentation will appeal to the independent audiologist who is currently working with children who have auditory processing disorders (APD). Our goal is to empower audiologists to work with families who are seeking support for their child with listening difficulties.

Please note: You may earn ABA Tier 1 credits for this course if you complete it as part of the course 26907, "AudiologyOnline Fall Focus: Pediatrics." Course 26907 contains recordings of all three events from our 2015 Fall series on Pediatrics. ABA Tier 1 CEUs can be earned only when all modules are completed as part of course 26907.

NOTE: This course is not available on mobile devices. We apologize for the inconvenience.

View this Course for FREE.
Need CEUs? Become a AudiologyOnline member to get unlimited CEUs.

Only $99/yr

Learn More